CRONICAS: Assessing the impact of geographic variation in the progression of non-communicable diseases in Peru

For this study, a cohort was established in four different communities, working within different levels of urbanization and varying altitudes. The longitudinal design the monitoring of all the participants over four years, establishes a solid foundation for research on non-communicable diseases in Peru.


The aim is to investigate how geographic variations influence the risk factors for cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, the death rate from these diseases over a period of 3.5 years, and to estimate the increase and influence of environmental pollution in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD).


This project studies the rate at which non-communicable diseases emerge over time at different geographic locations. The hypothesis of the project was: the progression towards acquiring high blood pressure, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity differs across the different locations selected for the study. The study, undertaken among four different communities, enabled the establishment of a solid foundation for epidemiological research on non-communicable diseases in Peru. The communities selected for the study were: an urban marginal district in Lima, San Juan de Miraflores, semi-urban communities in Tumbes, and urban and rural areas in Puno. The study was launched in August 2010 and all the participants were monitored for a total of 3.5 years. The assessments were done 20 and 40 months after the launching the project.

The research methods, evaluation and standardization were the same for all the locations included in the study. Both female and male individuals aged 35 or older were selected, adding up to more than 3000 participants.




Jaime Miranda Montero


Lima, Tumbes and Puno, Peru

Lima, Tumbes and Puno, Peru


National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health (NHLBI)


2010 – 2014

Research team

Jaime Miranda, MD, MSc, PhD, FFPH,  Antonio Bernabé-Ortiz, MD, MPH.

Contributors: Robert H. Gilman MD, William Checkley, MD, PhD (Johns Hopkins University, Estados Unidos).